HOW SOLAR PANELS ARE MADE ?
Solar panels use light energy from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Due to photovoltaic effects charges generated into solar panel which results into electricity.The majority of today available solar panels use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells. Functional layer of solar panel can either be the top layer or the back layer where photoelectric effect occurs. these solar modules are rigid, were first used in space in 1958. following three steps shows how solar panels are made and solar panel manufacturing process of crystalline solar panels.
for manufacturing crystalline solar cell first we have to get silicon crystal from the silicon rocks.it done with melting the silicon rock at high temperature 1800ºc.due to applying this high temperature silicon comes in to liquid form during silicon is in liquid form other required other ingredients such like boron are added during this process. then silicon seed is droped in to this liquid using cable around which crystallization of silicon occurs. then this silicon seed is pulled through small cylinder assembly and it continues rotating this time form a silicon rod which then cooled to 180*c teperture hence this type we got crystalline silicon.
SOLAR CELL MANUFACTURING
In this step waffering of crystalline silicon is done.during this process crystalline silicon rode cut into thin wafers after couple of processes such like cutting,squaring and slicing it takes squre shapes which angels are rounded but still this wafer can not produce power. After this step etaching is done, in this process small tiny layer of silicon is etched from surface then after some chemical process, phosphorus and boron gases are diffused on this etached surface which convert wafer into solar cell.Here layer of crystalline silicon act as p side and phosphurus boron layer act as n side of solar cell which is nothig but pn diode. Blue color of solar cell is result of using phosphorus in manufacturing process.
SOLAR PANEL MANUFACTURING
In this step solar panels are made from solar cells by thin electric connections in between them.Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Externally, popular terrestrial usage photovoltaic modules use weatherproof connections for the rest of the system. while manufacturing solar panel we have to take care possibility of damage can be done to panel by mechanical forces,moisture and dust.so for avoid this damages protective layer and framing of solar panels are done by solar manufacturers.
by A Siegel