HOW SOLAR PANELS WORK AND FACTORS AFFECTING TO
HOW SOLAR PANELS WORK ?
Solar Panels works on principle of photoelectric effect. In photoelectric effect electrons are generated in metals or semiconductors when sun radiation falls on it. So in solar cell when sun radiation falls on it electron current generated which have very small magnitude and in solar panels there are few tens to hundreds of solar cells are connected serially and parallely so we can get power that can used in daily purposes. So that's how solar panels works.
Solar panels can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions , and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. There are a few solar panels available that are exceeding 19% efficiency. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an array of solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.
FACTORS AFFECTING SOLAR PANEL WORKING
There are many factors affects the working of solar panels and due this, performance of solar panels decrease to very small value then maximum achievable value. All the factors such like material used in solar panel , solar panel manufacturing technology and environment effects related to solar panels working are explained briefly. So, we can understand why working efficiency of solar panel have limits and how can improve solar panels workability by removing losses that done by various parameters.
MATERIAL USED IN MANUFACTURING
Different material have different atomic structure and different abilities to absorb solar radiation. For any material solar radiation absorbing ability depends on band gaps of the material. So, according to band gap of the material it can or can not be used for solar panel manufacturing purpose. Most of the solar radiation wavelength portion can be absorbed by material which have band gap ranging from 0.8 ev to 2.3 ev due to this reason most of solar panels are made from semiconductor materials which have same band gap range.
TECHNOLOGY USED IN MANUFACTURING
Manufacturing Technology also plays a significant role in working of solar panel. Due to this reason different technologies of solar panels have different working efficiencies even if they are made up with same material. For example, Silicon Thin film and Silicon crystalline solar panel. All through they are made with same material but different manufacturing processes makes them having different working efficiency and cost of manufacturing. Same things also stands for single and multijunction solar panels as well. So according to our interest we have to decide by using which technology we like to produce solar panels.
ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON WORKING
Environment in which solar panel working, also affect the performance of solar panel. Geographical aspect also proven its importance in solar panel working.Due to snow, moisture, heat and rain the total lifespan of solar panel decreases and parameter like dust, pollen other particulates that accumulate on the solar panels results into low efficient working of solar panel. To avoid this losses we have to maintain our solar panels system by regular time periods.